The development from trainee to expert and, for a few, to wise person, occurs over time, in different settings and through different kinds of relationships. On the basis of her research in Chinese medicine, Elizabeth Hsu (3) has argued that one's relationship to knowledge is influenced by the setting in which it was learned. She contrasts three pedagogical relationships and modes of transmission of knowledge: the secret (i.e., knowledge that is acquired through repetition, imitation, and guided experience), the personal (i.e., knowledge that is acquired through a personal relationship with a mentor), and the standardized (i.e., knowledge that is acquired in organized and impersonal settings). In her study, the three settings involved different teachers and different kinds of knowledge; standard allopathic training programs combine at least the personal and the standardized modes. Students, then, will learn different things about being a clinician in the different settings of classroom, seminar room, bedside or clinic, and supervision room. Wise teachers may be wise in all settings but perhaps are most effective in supervision settings, where a personal relationship is established, introjection is maximal, and learning is based on the complexities of a particular case, rather than general rules of practice.