Over the last 30 years, major advances have been made in our understanding of how biological factors and sociocultural influences contribute to gender differences, gender identity formation, and gendered role behavior. Sensitivity to the psychological effects of changing family structure and work force composition, the contribution of reproductive events, and the high rates of exposure to trauma in women is essential for optimal psychiatric assessment and treatment planning. This knowledge has not been systematically integrated into residency training. The authors present an outline for a curriculum in gender and women's issues, including educational objectives, learning experiences through which residents could meet these objectives, and recommended readings. The authors also discuss potential obstacles and suggest helpful strategies for implementing the proposed curriculum.