Objective: To investigate resident burnout in relation to work and home-related factors. Method: Maslach Burnout Inventory was mailed to residents in eight different medical specialties, with a response rate of 35%. Results: Overall, 50% of residents met burnout criteria, ranging from 75% (obstetrics/gynecology) to 27% (family medicine). The first year of residency, being single, personal stress, and dissatisfaction with faculty were independently associated with burnout. Conclusions: Efforts to reduce resident burnout nationally would benefit from expanding beyond the work-hours regulation.