Some physicians have bemoaned the difficulty in developing physician-scientists interested in neuroscience (1), while shortages of physicians in specialties such as child psychiatry have sparked great concern within the field (2). Previous experience has suggested that providing medical students with opportunities to do research, especially early in their careers, may increase interest in academic medicine, enhancing the likelihood that they will become physician-scientists (3). We also know that specialty recruitment, especially in clinical neuroscience, is associated with the strength and quality of curricular offerings, and an early and continuous exposure to topics and mentors (4). To address both these concerns—specialty recruitment (especially psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery) and physician-scientist development (neuroscience research, broadly defined)—several neuroscience departments at our institution decided in 2003 to develop the AOC-N. The program opened in 2005, and in 2009 we graduated our second set of scholars. This milestone led to the current examination of program components and outcomes as a way of assessing whether areas of concentration can be successful in attracting students to neuroscience.