A number of healthcare reform measures have been implemented to improve treatment of chronic pain, including an Institute of Medicine conference on pain, a training program for healthcare professionals, and an increased emphasis on pain research within the National Institutes of Health (3). Concurrently, efforts have been directed at promoting and refining treatment strategies, with the intent of optimizing long-term recovery, functional adaptation, and rehabilitation. Traditional medical models, focusing solely on the physiological bases for acute pain management, have been inadequate in managing the complexities associated with chronic pain. For instance, research has revealed that significant comorbidities exist between psychiatric disorders and chronic pain, which can impede recovery and rehabilitative efforts (4). Consequently, during the past two decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding the role of psychiatric factors in the transition from acute injury to chronic pain.