Using 1989 data from the Faculty Roster System of the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors examined gender differences in retention and rank attainment of psychiatry faculty who had received their first full-time medical school appointments in 1978. Retention differences between men and women were not significant in either the M.D. or the Ph.D. subgroup. Women M.D.'s in the sample had advanced through the academic ranks to a significantly lesser extent than had men M.D.'s; the rank attainment differences among Ph.D.'s, however, were not significant. These results underscore the need for more study of gender differences in the career paths of faculty in academic psychiatry departments.